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Agricultural Experiment Station 



Studies on the Tobacco Crop 
OF Connecticut. 


" Bjr Hercules! I do hold it and will affirm it, 
before any prince in Europe, to be tbe most sovereign 
and precious weed that ever the earth tendered to 
the use of man." 

"By Gad's me"! rejoins Cob, "I mar'l what 
pleasure or felicity they have in taking this roguish 
tobacco. It is good for nothing but to choke a man 
and fill him full of smoke and embers." 

Ben Jonson's Every Man in his Humour, 1598. 

The Bulletins of this Station are mailed free to citizens of Connecticut 
who apply for them, and to others as far as the editions permit. 

V o 

K n 





His Excellency, Simeon E. Baldwin, ex-officio. President. 

Prof. H. W. Conn, Vice President MIddletown 

Oeorge A. Hopson, Secretary Wallingford 

E. H. Jenkins, Director and Treasurer New Haven 

Joseph W. Alsop Avon 

Wilson H. Lee Orange 

Frank H. Stadtmueller Elmwood 

James H. Webb Hamden 

Administration. E. H. Jenkins. Ph.D., Director and Treasurer. 

Miss V. E. Cole, Librarian and Stenographer. 
Miss L. M. Brautlecht, Bookkeeper and Stenographer. 
William Veitch, In charge of Buildings and Grounds. 


Analytical Laboratory. John Phillips Street, M.S., Chemist in Charge. 
E. Monroe Bailey, Ph.D., C. B. Morison, B.S., 
C. E. Shepard, G. L. Davis, Assistants, 
Hugo Lange, Laboratory Helper, 
V. L. Churchill, Sampling Agent, 
Miss E. B. Whittlesey, Stenographer. 

Proteid Research. 

T. B. Osborne, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge. 
Miss E. L. Ferry, M.S., Assistant, 


G. P. Clinton, S.D., Botanist. 

E. M. Stoddard, B.S., Assistant, 

Miss M. H. Jagg-er, Seed Analyst. 

Miss E. B. Whittlesey, Herbarium Assistant. 


W. E. Britton, Ph.D., E}it07>iologist ; State Entomologist. 
B. H. Walden, B.Agr., First Assistant, 
Q. S. Lowry, B.S., I. W. Davis, B.S., Assistants. 
Miss F. M. Valentine, Stenographer, 


Walter O. Filley, Forester; also State 

Forester and State Forest Fire Warden. 
A. E. Moss, M.F., Assistant Station Forester. 
Miss E. L. Avery, Stenographer. 

Plant Breeding. 

H. K. Hayes, M.S., Plant Breeder. 
C. D. Hubbell, Assistant. 



Station, OflScers and Stafif 1 

Quantity of Nitrogen and Mineral Elements in the Tobacco Crop. . 4 

The Leaves 4 

The Stalks 8 

Total 10 

Relation Between the Composition of Ash and the burning 

Quality 10 

Proximate Composition of the Leaf Before and After Fermentation 11 

Grain of Tobacco 14 

Area of Leaf Surface on an Acre of Tobacco 16 

Seed Production of Tobacco 16 

Management of Seed Beds 16 

Poquonock Fertilizer Experiments 18 

Method 18 

Soil 19 

Fertilizers 19 

Soil Moisture 20 

Temperature of Soil and Air 20 

Results 21 

Loss of Weight in Fermentation 21 

Weight of Leaves 21 

Fire-Holding Capacitj- 21 

Percentage of Wrappers 22 

Yield 22 

Loss in Sorting 22 

Comparative Value of Leaf from Several Plots 22 

Comparisons of Fertilizers 23-30 

Nitrate of Soda, 23. Cotton Seed Meal, 24. Castor 
Pomace, 24. Linseed Meal, 24. Fish Scrap, 24. 
Stable Manure, 25. Tobacco Stems, 25. Various 
Forms of Potash, 26. Use of Large Amounts of 
Phosphates, 28. 

Shaded Tobacco 30 

Curing with Artificial Heat 33 

Fermentation of Tobacco in Case 35 

Fermentation of Tobacco in Bulk 36 

Bibliography of Publications on Wrapper Leal Tobacco 58 

Tobacco Breeding 38 

Insects which Injure Tobacco 41 

Fungous Diseases of Tobacco 46 

Bibliography of Publications on Wrapper Leaf Tobacco 58 


By E, H. Jenkins. 

Wrapper leaf tobacco, the only 'type of leaf raised in this 
state, is our largest cash crop. The government crop report 
for 1912 shows that tobacco was grown on 17,500 acres in 
Connecticut, that the yield was over twenty-nine million seven 
hundred and fifty thousand pounds and that the value on the 
farm was more than seven million one hundred thousand dol- 
lars, exceeding that of all cereals grown in Connecticut, of all 
the timothy and clover, and more than half as large as that of 
all the forage crops. 

This Station has been called upon to help growers in such 
ways as it could to improve the quality, increase the quantity 
and decrease the cost of growing the crop. The results of this 
work have been printed from time to time during the last 
twenty years, but the demand from within and without the 
state has exhausted the supply of bulletins and reports on the 

, As the call for them still continues, the following summary 
of our results has been prepared, with references to our orig- 
inal reports which can be found in libraries if more detailed 
study of any topic is desired and also to the valuable work 
which has been done elsewhere on tobacco of the cigar- 
wrapper type but which cannot be adequately described within 
the limits alloted to this bulletin. This bulletin is in no way a 
guide to tobacco growing or a treatise on the whole subject 
but simply brings together in small compass the general results 

4 . Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

of such work as this Station has done in the interest of tobacco 
growers and handlers. 

The various subjects follow each other, often with no close 
connection, for they describe single pieces of work undertaken 
as necessity required or opportunity offered and are not the 
result of any comprehensive plan for a systematic study of the 
whole subject of tobacco culture. 

The Quantity of Nitrogen and of Certain Mineral 
Constituents in an Average Tobacco Crop. 

1. The leaves. From twelve analyses of tobacco leaf grown 
in this state (41)* was calculated the number of pounds of 
mineral matter and nitrogen in a crop of 1800 pounds of leaf 
tobacco with 30 per cent, pi moisture. This average appears 
in the fourteenth column of Table II. 

Analyses of the following samples made in 1884 (42) are 
given in Table I. 

No. 1. Fermented Havana from Cuba, good quality, 
burns white. No. 2. Fermented Sumatra, good bum, other- 
wise poor quality. No. 3. Fermented Wisconsin Havana, 
fair quality, burns white and free. No. 4. Fermented Con- 
necticut seed leaf, good quality, good bum, raised on new 
land with yard manure, no commercial fertilizer. No. 5. 
Unfermented Connecticut Havana, very good quality. 
Land dressed with cotton hull ashes, one ton cotton seed meal , 
300 pounds each of lime and land plaster. No. 6. Un- 
fermented Connecticut Havana, very good quality. Land 
dressed with 400 pounds bone, 500 pounds double sulphate 
of potash, 1 ton cotton seed meal and 300 lbs. each of lime and 
land plaster. No. 7. Unfermented Connecticut Havana. 
Fair quality, except coals and does not burn well. Raised on 
good manure. No. 8. Fermented Connecticut Ha\'ana. Poor 
quality, crusts badly and does not bum well. Raised on 
good loamy land with slaughter house manure worked over by 

* Numbers refer to the references given on page 59 et seq. 

The Composition of Tobacco Leaf. 

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'6 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

The Station also analyzed the ash of the long wrapper lea\es 
harvested from a number of the plots in its fertilizer exper- 
iment. (53). The results of these analyses have been calcula- 
ted to a yield of 1800 pounds of pole-cured tobacco per acre 
with 30 per cent, of moisture and are given in Table 11. 

While the above figures refer to long wrappers alone, we 
shall not be far wrong probably in assuming that they apply 
approximately to the whole crop. The pure ash of short 
wrappers is quite like that of th^ long wrappers in its compo- 
sition and the two make the larger part of the crop. 

The last column of the table gives the average amount of 
the ingredients named, being the average of 25 analyses. This 
assumes a water-content of 30 per cent, in cured leaves as 
taken down from the poles and represents very high "case". 
If the crop weighed 1800 pounds with only twenty per cent, of 
moisture, the figures would give only seven-eighths of the true 
content of nitrogen and mineral matter. 

About half of the analyses included in the compilation were 
made years ago when commercial fertilizers were not so freely 
used on tobacco land as at present. It is probable therefore 
that these figures represent rather less than the amount con- 
tained in the leaves of a heavily fertilized crop at the present 

Of course the amount of the different mineral matters in 
the leaf is affected by the amount and kind of plant food used 
in the fertilizer. This is strikingly shown in the analyses of leaf 
from plots, each of which for five years had been heavily fer- 
tilized with the same particular mixture of chemicals but each 
particular mixture different from any other. The general re- 
sults are given as follows: (47). 

"The fertilizers used have had striking effects on the com- 
position of the ash. 

a. The largest percentage of potash was in tobacco to 
which most fertilizer-potash had been applied. The percent- 
age of potash is least in the ash of tobacco from the plots 
dressed with potash in form of sulphate. The percentage of 
potash in the ash of tobacco from those plots is also less than 

The Composition of Tobacco Leap. 









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8 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

it is in the ash of tobacco from plots which are dressed with the 
same, or even half the quantity of fertilizer-potash in form 
of carbonate. 

b. The tobacco dressed with high-grade sulphate of potash 
the ash of which contained a smaller per cent, of potash 
than any other lot, contains on the other hand the highest per 
cent, of lime, and the tobacco dressed with the double sulphalo 
of potash and magnesia also contains a relatively high per cent. 
of lime. 

c. In general the tobaccos which have most lime have least 
magnesia, and vice versa. Comparatively large percentages of 
magnesia are found in the lots of tobacco which were raised 
on plots dressed with fertilizers containing much magnesia. In 
the short wrappers of a single plot, P, the percentage of mag- 
nesia was larger than that of lime. The quality of the leaf has 
not been damaged in previous years by these large quantities of 
magnesia. Lots P, Y, F and D, which have large percentage 
amounts of magnesia, have heretofore been among the best 
tobaccps as regards quality of leaf. 

d. The percentage of sulphuric acid in the leaf is very 
much larger when sulphates are used in the fertilizer. It is 
believed that these large amounts of sulphuric acid have im- 
paired the burning quality of the leaf, and in this exper- 
iment the "burn" of tobacco from the plot which was dressed 
with high-grade sulphate, has been very unsatisfactory. 

e. The ash of tobacco from the plot dressed with stable 
manure contains five times as much chlorine as the ash from 
any other lot in the series." 

2. The Stalks. In Table III, I gives the number of 
pounds of the several ingredients from an acre of stalks, barn- 
cured, with 67 per cent, of water in them and weighing about 
3000 pounds. (Kept. 1887 p. 83). II gives the number of 
pounds of these same ingredients from an acre of stalks, barn- 
cured, containing 45.90 per cent, of water and estimated to 
weight 4000 pounds per acre. (Rept 1884 p. 105). Ill gives 
the number of pounds of the same ingredients (calculated 
from the analysis and weight of only four stalks) which gave 
3438 pounds per acre with 61.62 per cent, of water. (50). 

The Composition of Tobacco Stalks. 


Pounds of Nitrogen and Mineral Matter in the Stalks 
FROM an Acre of Tobacco. 




Average of 
I and III 






Phosphoric Acid . 
Sulphuric Acid . . . 



14 7 


The figures given in II seem to the writer quite too large. 
The estimated weight of stalks per acre, 4000 pounds, is larger 
than other estimates and weighings and the percentage of 
water found in them very much smaller. The writer believes 
that an average of analyses I and III gives a more accurate 
idea of the composition than would be given by the average of 
the three analyses. 

"The stalks on an acre of tobacco, containing about 8000 
plants weigh at cutting about 9500 pounds. Of this, about 
83(X) pounds or 4 1-7 tons are water which has to be handled, 
hauled to the barn and hung on the poles. About 6200 pounds, 
3 1-10 tons of water, are evaporated in curing and the rest, a 
little over a ton of water, is taken down in the cured stalks." 

3. Stalks and Leaves Together. The figures cited above 
taken together, give a general idea of the number of pounds 
of plant food yearly removed from an acre by the tobacco crop. 
On heavily dressed tobacco land the amounts of nitrogen and 
mineral matters in the crop will no doubt be considerably 
larger. As previously stated, many of the analyses included 
in this average were made some time ago, when commercial 
fertilizers were not so freely used on tobacco land as they 
now are and represent less fairly the present conditions. It 
must be remembered that such an average only gives an ap- 
proximate statement. 


Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 


Pounds of Nitrogen and Mineral Matter in Stalks and 

Leaves from an Acre of Tobacco. 

Nitrogen .... 



Lime .... 

Magnesia . . . 
Phosphoric Acid 
Sulphuric Acid . 
Chlorine .... 

In the Leaf. 




In the Stalk. 




The Relations between the Composition of the Ash 
AND THE Burning Quality of the Leaf. 

In connection with the analyses given on page 5, which 
were made to study the relation between the composition of 
the ash and the burn of the leaf, the matter is summed up by 
Prof. Johnson as follows : 

"It is most probable that 'burning quality' is the result of the 
coincidence of several conditions. The abundance of cellulose 
(woody tisue) the abundance of organic potash salts in the leaf 
the abundance of sulphates* are evidently favorable for easy 
burning. On the other hand, sugar, gum (pectic acid) and 
albuminous matters are difficult of combustion. Mineral salts 
which fuse at the burning temperature, such as chlor- 
ides and phosphates of potassium and sodium, hinder free 
burning. Fermentation which reduces the quantity of sugar 
and albuminous matters, and perhaps also that of organic acids, 
and which may influence the distribution of the soluble salts, 
acts on the whole, to improve the burning quality. 

"It would therefore seem evident that burning quality is good 
or bad according to the preponderance of favorable or unfa- 
vorable factors, and it is not always related in a simple man- 
ner to the composition of the ash. 

* This is not in agreement with the results of experiments cited on 
page 26. Potash in the fonn of sulphates, however, has been used 
extensively without injurious effect on the burn of the leaf. 

Composition and Burning Quality. 


"It would be going too far to assert that the use of chlorides 
(muriates), or of fish or slaughter-house fertilizers must invar- 
iably produce tobacco of inferior quality. Nessler found in 
his field trials that application of salt generally gave badly- 
burning tobacco. In 1862, however, tobacco from the plot 
manured with salt, though containing little carbonate of potash 
in the ash, burned scarcely less well than the tobacco from 
adjoining plots, to which carbonate of potash, sulphate of 
potash and stable manure had been applied. 

"The tobacco-grower will, however, do well to avoid the use 
of the above named fertilizers, which experience in all coun- 
tries agrees in indicating to be likely, as a rule, to injure the 
burning quality of the leaf."* 

The Proximate Composition of the Leaf before 
AND after Fermentation. 

From the upper leaves, short seconds and first wrappers of 
a tobacco crop, were selected two lots each, apparently in all 
respects alike. One lot of each was immediately analysed 
and the other was cased down with other tobacco and ferment- 
ed in the usual way and then analysed. (49) 
The results and a discussion of them follow : 
The condition of the tobacco when analyzed is shown in 
the following table : 








Pi. 4> 



1 0) 








Number of leaves in sample . . . 
Weight of the leaves (grams) . . . 
Number of leaves in one pound . . 
Per cent, of water in the leaves. . 





















* See however remarks on page 26. 

12 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

Tlie chemical analyses of the leaves are given in detail below: 

Analyses of Fermented and Unfermented Leaves. 


Ash* ... ... 

N cotine 

Nitric Acid (N2O5) . 
Ammonia (NHg) . . • 
Other Nitrogenous matterst 



Other Nitrogen-free Extract 
Ether Extract 

1 Upper 








21.10 1 














' 2.39 









6.81 ! 









































From the data obtained have been calculated the number of 
pounds of each ingredient of the leaves in one thousand pounds 
of the unsweated tobacco, and also how many pounds of each 
ingredient were left after fermentation. The differences 
should represent the losses incurred during the process. 

Total Loss by Fermentation. The upper leaves, short 
seconds and first wrappers lost respectively, by fermentation, 
9.7, 12.3 and 9.1 per cent, of their total weight. 

While three-fourths of the loss in the case of the short sec- 
onds, consisted of water, in the case of the upper leaves almost 
three-fourths of the loss was of Avy matter. The first wrap- 
pers lost a little less dry matter than water. 

* Free from carbonic acid and carbon. 

t Nitrogen other than that of nicotine, nitric acid and amnionia, 
multiplied by S% . 

Composition Affected by Fermentation. 



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14 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

Ingredients of the Leaf Affected by Fermentation. The 
quantities of nitric acid, ammonia, fiber and starch contained 
in the leaves are about the same after fermentation as before. 

It will be noticed that there is an apparent loss of ash or min- 
eral matter in each case. This cannot possibly be due to 
changes induced by fermentation but can only be explained by 
errors in weighing or analysis against which every precaution 
was exercised, or most probably by the handling of the leaf 
by the persons who cased it down. Tobacco is usually vigor- 
ously shaken as it is cased to make the leaves smooth, and in 
this way adhering sand may be easily lost. 

Aside from this, the chief loss of dr}'^ matter has been in 
nicotine, albuminoids and amide bodies, nitrogen-free extract 
and, to a much less extent, ether extract. Thus the upper 
leaves lost more than a third of their nicotine, the short seconds 
somewhat less than half and the first wrappers less than one- 
sixth of it. The upper leaves, in which fermentation was 
evidently the most active, lost more than one-seventh of their 
nitrogen-free extract and one-fifth of their ether extract. 

The first wrappers claim special notice as they make up a 
large part and the most valuable part of any good crop. The 
fermentation in this case destroyed only 5.8 per cent, of their 
dry matter. They lost but little nicotine, and aside from the 
ash the chief losses were of nitrogenous matters other than 
nicotine and of nitrogen-free extract which here includes the 
"gum" of tobacco. 

Further experiments made on a much larger scale are de- 
sirable to accurately ascertain the nature of the fermentation 
and the possibility of regulating it to suit the special require- 
ments of the leaf. 

The "Grain" of Tobacco. 

The minute pimples on the surface of cured tobacco 
which give it a somewhat granular appearance and roughish 
feeling, are the "grain". It is always looked for by growers 
and buyers as a sign of good quality. 

The Grain of Tobacco. 


Explanation of Figure 2 

Fig. 1 Cross-section of fresh Tobacco-leaf highly magnified : c, 
cuticle; e, upper epidermis; p, palisade layer with chlorophyll grains; 
sp, spongy parenchyma with two crystals of oxalate of lime; ee, lower 
epidermis; s, stomata; h, hairs. 

Fig. 2. Cross-section of cured Tobacco-leaf, showing the masses 
of needle-like crystals of calcium oxalate which cause the "grain". 
The contents of the cells are disintegrated and the leaf is much reduced 
in thickness. A vascular bundle densely charged with a crystalline 
deposit traverses the median line of the section. Magnified 105 diam- 

16 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

Dr. Sturgis' observations (59) show that it is caused by- 
deposits of crystals of calcium oxalate within the leaf tissue 
which are so large in places as to push out the epidermis or 
skin of the leaf, making these little pimples. The microscopic 
appearance of these crystals is shown in the plate. Whether 
the crystals are there in green leaf and only appear after 
it shrinks in curing, or whether the crystals are formed during 
the cure was not determined. Nor do we know the conditions 
which favor this formation. When the leaf bums the oxalate 
readily changes to carbonate and probably helps to produce 
a perfect burn of the organic matters in contact with it. 

The Area of Leaf Surface on an Acre of Tobacco, 
Topped and Ready to Harvest. 

A computation made from measurements of a single plant 
gave the area of the leaves of 7700 plants of Connecticut 
Havana on an acre of land as four and eight-tenths acres. 
(Rept 1899. Page 297). 

Seed Production of Tobacco. 

A single normal plant of Havana tobacco yielded 42 pods. 
The average number of seeds per pod, calculated from the 
total weight of the seeds of the plant and the weight of 1,000 
seeds was 98,910. Allowing a vitality of 75 per cent., the 
seeds from one plant could set about 7 acres of tobacco. The 
common saying that one plant yields seed enough for an acre 
is undoubtedly true even with a large allowance for waste of 

Management of Seed Beds. 

This has been fully discussed in Bulletin 166, copies of 
which are available for distribution. 

Fertilisers. The soil of the bed should be well fertilized 
preferably in the fall if horse manure is used, but with com- 
mercial fertilizers in the spring. The complete or partial fail- 
ure of beds is more often caused by too thick seeding and want 

Management of Seed Beds. 


of skill or care in watering and particularly in airing the beds, 
than by over- fertilizing or under-fertilizing the soil. If the 
plants do not grow as they should, seek the cause in these 
things and in diseases which result from insufficient ventila- 
tion before dosing the bed with fertilizers. 

Sterilizing. This will be described in brief under root rot. 

Seed Separation. This is accomplished by either winnowing 
in the open or by various machines made for the purpose. The 
matter is discussed in (77). 

The relative weights of "light " and "heavy" seed in two 
tests were as follows. 

Relative Weights of Heavy and Light Tobacco Seed. 


Character of Seed. 

Weight in 
Grams per 
5000 Seed. 

Per Cent 

of total 


Havana Seed . . . 

Conn. Shade Cuban 
11 <i i( 

Seed from single plant-Light 
" " " " -Heavy 

Seed from single plant-Light 
" " " " -Heavy 



Rate of Seeding. The practice of good growers varies from 
one tablespoonful (or one-half ounce) to 150 square feet to 
the same quantity for 500 square feet. An ounce contains 
about 300,000 seeds or perhaps 225,000 which will sprout 
and grow. An ounce of dry seed should sow 900 square feet 
and give not more than two plants to one square inch. 

Sprouted or Dry Seed. For the reasons fully given in 
Bulletin 166, we recommend the sowing of dry seed rather 
than of seed which has been sprouted previously. 

Top Dressing the beds while the plants are growing, follow- 
■ed by watering to remove all fertilizer from the leaves of the 
plants is not an uncommon practice but should be unnecessary 
in ordinary seasons and with proper preliminary treatment 
of the soil. Tobacco water, a decoction of the stems, should 
never be put on the beds. Dr. Clinton of this Station has 

18 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

shown that "calico" is carried in the stems of leaves infected 
with it and that tobacco water prepared from such stems may 
easily infect plants watered with it. He has no evidence to 
show that this infection passes from stems which are plowed 
into the soil to the young plants. Infection of the plants by 
the use of tobacco water has been abundantly proved. 

Ventilation*of the Beds. Proper airing of the beds is essen- 
tial to protect the seedlings from " damping off" and other 
fungous diseases. It is an art which cannot be taught except 
by experience with the bed itself. When the air of the bed 
is nearly saturated and warm, trouble is at hand, just as when 
the air of the barn full of curing tobacco gets into the same 
state, and the remedy is the same in both cases, viz., circu- 
lation of air to carry off the moisture, even if this causes a 
loss of heat from the soil, the bed, or the barn. 

The Poquonock Fertilizer Experiments. 

These were made in cooperation with a joint stock company 
chiefly of tobacco growers, called the Connecticut Tobacco 
Experiment Company. The object was to answer certain 
practical questions regarding tobacco fertilizers. Among 
these were : 

What is the effect on quality and quantity of leaf of larger 
applications than usual of cotton seed meal? What is the 
effect of castor pomace compared with that of cotton seed 
meal? If heavy dressings of castor pomace prove injurious 
will the injury be lessened or prevented by supplying half of 
the nitrogen in form of nitrate? What are the comparative 
effects of various forms of potash such as cotton hull ashes, 
the two sulphates of potash, (with and without lime) carbon- 
ate of potash and nitrate of potash, on the yield and quality of 
the crops? 

Method. The amounts of fertilizers were those commonly 
used by successful growers. Each formula was used yearly 
for five years (in a few cases for four years only) on the same 
plot of one-twentieth of an acre. The growing, curing and 

PoQUONocK Fertilizer Experiments. 19 

sorting of the crops were wholly in charge of a skillful and 
experienced tobacco grower, Mr. John A. DuBon. The sorted 
leaves were so marked that only the director and the grower 
could determine from which plots they came. This marked 
crop was packed by a dealer in leaf tobacco, L. B. Haas & Co., 
of Hartford during the winter and fermented under the usual 
conditions. In the following autumn the tobacco, cured and 
ready for manufacture was sampled and sealed by a profes- 
sional sampler. These guaranteed samples were finally judged 
by experts whose business was largely the judgment of 
wrapper leaf and who had no knowledge of the particular plots 
represented. Messrs. Benjamin Haas, William Westphal, 
Jr. and David Rothschild served as judges. They made notes 
of the character of the burn, ash, color, texture, yield, size, 
vein, stem, and finally of relative ranks after further careful 
comparison of the samples. 

Soil. The soil of the field is like much of the upland tobacco 
soil of the Conn, valley and may be described as a coarse, open, 
sandy soil. It is classed by the Bureau of Soils in the Survey 
of the Conecticut Valley as "Windsor Sand". (14). 

There is no further observation as to the uniformity of the 
soil on the different plots than this. In June 1894, two weeks 
after a rain fall of 0.57 inch, a moisture determination made 
on each plot showed percentages ranging from 11.8 to 6.5 per 
cent. (Rept. 1894, p. 277). These figures indicated that 
one section of the field was more retentive of moisture than 
the others, although the land appeared to be uniform. In the 
five year period some tobacco of the best quality and also some 
of the poorest quality grew on the plots which in the above test 
showed the most moisture. The same is also true of plots on the 
drier parts of the field. The field had not been cultivated or 
fertilized for five or six years and tobacco had never grown 
there. It was a "run-out" field. 

Fertilizers. The amounts of plant food used in the various 
mixtures made by the Station were, 105 to 345 lbs. nitrogen, 
150 to 212 lbs. phosphoric acid and 331 to 368 lbs. potash. 

The use of the larger amounts of these ingredients might 

20 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

be justified for a few years on land which had been long neg- 
lected but their continued use would be prodigally wasteful for 
the grower. No injury resulting from continued use during 
the five years was noticed. 

Thus a favorite formula in the Conn, valley which gave 
excellent results for five successive years consisted of 2000 
lbs. cotton seed meal and 1500 lbs. cotton hull ashes per acre 
and this supplies 140 lbs. nitrogen, 165 lbs. phosphoric acid and 
350 lbs. potash. 

Field Conditions. Moisture. The plants were set in the 
field either in late May or early June, and the crops were har- 
vested from 79 to 83 days after setting. The rainfalls while 
the crop was on the field in the five years beginning with 1892 
were respectively 16.01, 6.13, 7.16, 9.38 and 11.04 inches, the 
normal summer rainfall being about ten inches. 

In 1893 and 1894 the crop suffered noticeably, particularly 
in 1894. The effect of rainfall on crop production depends 
on the distribution as much as on the amount . Light frequent 
rainfalls through the growing season are much more favorable 
than a few heavy downpours with times of drought between 
them. In 1894 rain fell on 17 days but was scanty in amount; 
in 1895, on 23 days, well distributed, in 1896, on 18 days, 
abundant in amount and well distributed. In 1894 and 1895 
the moisture in the soil to the depth of 8 inches was daily de- 
termined (Repts. 1894 p. 275 and 1895 p. 150) both under 
the growing crop and on unplanted land, the surface of which 
was cultivated from time to time. 

A single observation of the remarkable effect of nitrate of 
soda in checking the transpiration of water by tlie plant is 
worth recording. On July 25, 1892, when the soil was so dry 
that the tobacco was badly wilted in the morning, nitrate of 
soda was applied on one plot at the rate of 220 lbs. per acre. 
Within 36 hours, the plants on that plot looked as if they had 
all the moisture needed while the rest of the crop looked parch- 
ed. A rain followed on the 31st. which revived all the tobacco. 

Temperature. Air and soil temperatures taken in 1894 (Rept. 
1894, p. 278) showed a maximum by the radiation thermome- 

PoQUONOCK Fertilizer Experiments. 21 

ter of 111° F. and minimum 39^^° in 1894 and 102° and 41° 
respectively in 1895. The maximum and minimum soil tem- 
peratures (average depth of nine inches) in 1894 were 97.9° 
and 53.1° and the next year 101° and 50°. 

Results of the Experiment. 

In the following paragraphs the results of this five year ex- 
periment are briefly summarized. A full discussion of them 
is given in the Station Report for 1897. page 243-256. The 
type of tobacco was "Connecticut Havana" used chiefly for 
cigar wrappers. 

Loss of Weight during Fermentation. In the five crops 
this loss ranged from 8.1 per cent, to 14 per cent, but the 
crop which lost most (1893) was called "poorly sweated", 
while all the others were satisfactorily fermented. The char- 
acter, and not the total amount of the fermentation determines 
the success of the process ; and when done in cases, the own- 
er has little control over either the character or the amount of 

Weight of Wrapper Leaves. The average number of leaves 
per pound of short and long wrappers before and after fermen- 
tation, is as follows : 

Before. After. 

Short Wrappers 87 92 

Long" Wrappers 62 68 

These are the averages of all plots under experiment. The 
largest number of fermented short wrapper leaves per pound 
from any one plot was 113; the largest number of fermented 
long wrapper leaves was 98. 

Fire-Holding Capacity. This was determined by the aver- 
age of thirty tests made on 5 leaves. Each leaf was tested 
in six different places, three on each side of the midrib ; at the 
base, near the center and near the tip. For each test the leaf 
was held horizontally over a " lighter ", (described in the 
Report for 1892, p. 17) until a circular hole was burned, glow- 
ing at the edges. The leaf was quickly removed and the number 

22 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

of seconds was noted, which elapsed before the last spark had 
gone out. The average of the thirty tests was taken to repre- 
sent the fire-holding capacity of the lot. The average number 
of seconds during which the wrappers held fire before and 
after fermentation were as follows : 

Before. After. 

Short Wrappers 12.0 28.5 

Long Wrappers 9.2 23.9 

The fire-holding capacity of the fermented leaves was gen- 
erally more than double than of the unfermentd. 

Percentage of Wrappers. The percentages of long and 
short wrappers in the sorted crops have ranged from 47.2 
(1893) to 66.6 (1892) and have averaged 60.7. Certain plots 
have yielded as high as 78 per cent, of wrappers. 

Yield per acre of Pole-Cured, Sorted Tobacco. The aver- 
age yield for all the plots ranged during the five years from 
1568 to 1876 pounds per acre and averaged 1685 pounds. The 
maximum yield from any single plot in a single year was 2280 
pounds; the minimum yield, 1145 pounds. A good average 
yield of Havana leaf in this state is 1800 pounds. 

Loss of Weight in Sorting. The loss of weight in sort- 
ing ranged from 4.6 to 5.3 per cent, of the weight of the crop 
in the bundle; that is, one thousand pounds of tobacco in the 
bundle yielded, on the average, 950 pounds of sorted tobacco. 
The loss consists of trash leaves (spoiled in the field or dam- 
aged by sunburn or poleburn in the curing barn) and of 
moisture which evaporates from the tobacco during storage 
and sorting. The best growers avoid, so far as possible, the 
addition of water to the leaf either by blowing or sprinkling. 
Such applications, unless very carefully made, may spot the 
leaves and damage the quality of the tobacco during fermen- 

The Comparative Value of the Leaf from the Sci'cral Plots. 
The method which sought to fix this value has already been 
described. As was to be expected the comparatixo values of 

PoQUONOCK Fertilizer Experiments. 23 

the crops from the twenty-nine plots were not the same in any 
two years. For example one of the twenty-nine lots of tobac- 
co was graded as fourteenth in 1892 and 1893 i. e. of about 
average quality, in 1894 it ranked second, in 1895 first, i. e. 
best or nearly best, and in 1896, seventh. 

If, now, we average the five numbers representing the grad- 
ing of the tobacco for each year, in the case before us 14, 14, 
2, 1, and 7, we obtain a figure which is a numerical expression 
of the average relative quality of the crop on this plot for the 
five years taken together. 

Effect of the Quantity of Fertilizer Nitrogen on the 
Amount and Quality of the Crop. All of the plots in this test 
had 340* pounds of potash and 190 pounds of phosphoric acid 
applied yearly in the form of cotton hull ashes (about 1200 
pounds) and with it on three plots, 3000, 2500 and 1500 pounds 
of cotton seed meal respectively, while three of the plots had 
corresponding amounts of castor pomace. The amounts of 
nitrogen in these dressings were 210, 175 and 105 pounds, re- 

Result. The plot dressed with 3000 pounds of cotton seed 
meal yearly yielded on the average of five years a larger weight 
of wrappers than either of the others. The gain was enough 
to make the larger application profitable even if the crop sold 
as low as 12 cents per pound. The average quality of the crop 
was also better. Like results followed the use of castor 

Can Part of a Heavy Dressing of Nitrogen he Profitably 
Applied in Nitrate Soda During the Growing Season? Witli 
like quantities of phosphoric acid and potash, 210 pounds of 
nitrogen were yearly applied to each of three plots : to one in 

*The only other source of potash and phosphoric acid has been the 
nitrogenous matter (cotton seed meal or castor pomace), which sup- 
plied a comparatively small amount. This large quantity of potash 
was used because experienced growers suggested it and it agrees with 
common practice. The amount is very much larger than is generally 

24 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

die form of castor pomace, to two others, half of the nitrogen in 
castor pomace and half in nitrate of soda. In one of these the 
nitrate was put on in one dose during the growing season and 
in the other in two applications. 

Result. The quantity of wrappers was somewhat larger 
where nitrate was used but the average quality was somewhat 
poorer, so that there appeared to be no economy in this use of 

Comparison of Cotton Seed Meal and Castor Pomace. 
Three different amounts of nitrogen were applied to three plots 
in each of the two forms. 

Result. The plots dressed with castor pomace yielded more 
tobacco in the five year test than those which had cotton seed 
meal, the average excess being 111 pounds of sorted tobacco 
or 25 pounds of wrappers yearly. . 

The quality of the leaf, however, was somewhat better where 
cotton seed meal was used. The comparative ranks of the leaf 
on the three cotton seed meal plots were 17th, 9th and 11th; 
on the pomace plots 26th, 16th and 7th. The writer believes 
that in a favorable season castor pomace will give as good 
quality as cotton seed meal but if the season is unfavorable to 
decay and nitrification, the pomace is too slowly available and 
pushes the crop when it should be ripening off, thus making 
a darker and heavier leaf. 

Comparison of Linseed Meal with Cotton Seed Meal and 
Castor Pomace. This test was made for four years only. 

Result. The weight of crop and of wrappers was decidedly 
less where linseed was used (in connection with cotton hull 
ashes) than where either cotton seed meal or castor pomace 
was used. 

The average annual difference was 157 pounds per acre in 
comparison with pomace and 65 pounds in comparison with 
cotton seed meal. The quality of leaf, however, was decidedly 
better on the linseed plots than on the others. 

Comparison of Fish Scrap with Cotton Seed Meal. For 
four years two plots were dressed with degelatinized bone and 

POQUONOCK Fertilizer Experiments, 25 

double sulphate of potash. Each also received 105 pounds 
of nitrogen, one in form of fish scrap, the other in form of 
cotton seed meal. 

Result. The average yearly yield per acre from the plot 
dressed with fish was 250 pounds less than that from any other, 
the per cent, of wrappers was smaller, but the quality of the 
crop was surprisingly good being graded as fourth while that 
from the cotton seed meal plot was graded as seventeenth. A 
few hundred pounds of fish are sometimes used by growers "to 
give a finish" to the leaf, but in general, animal forms of nitro- 
gen are not popular. I believe that tftiis prejudice is carried 
too far and that easily available forms like red dried blood 
or fish or fine slaughter house tankage may well be used for 
a part of a tobacco formula. 

Comparison of Stable Manure and Tobacco Stems. This 
comparison was made for only four years. In the first year 
while other plots were under tillage the two in this series were 
uncultivated and bore a sparse growth of grass and blackberry 

One plot was dressed with 10 to 12 cords of mixed yard 
manure, estimated to supply about 111 pounds of nitrogen,71 
pounds of phosphoric acid and 149 pounds of potash. In two 
of the four years it also received 500 pounds per acre of Swift- 
Sure Superphosphate, containing 15 pounds of nitrogen, 72 
pounds of phosphoric acid and 23 pounds of potash. 

The other plot received in each of the four years 6000 
pounds of tobacco stems, containing 111 pounds of nitrogen, 
36 pounds of phosphoric acid and 486 pounds of potash. In 
two of the four years it likewise received 500 pounds of Swift- 
Sure Superphosphate. 

Result. The average yield of tobacco from tobacco stems 
was 1654 pounds but from stable manure it was much less, 
1390 pounds which is fully explained by the low availability 
of the nitrogen of stable manure. Where ten to twelve cords 
per acre are used, it should be supplemented by some quickly 
available form of nitrogen, like cotton seed meal. On the 
average of four years the tobacco from stable manure was 

26 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

graded 6th, that from stems 18th, while that from the three 
plots dressed with cotton seed meal and cotton hull ashes was 
graded 19th, 10th and 12th. 

The effect of manure is not at all measured by the amount 
of plant food in it. It adds bacterial life and bacterial food 
to the soil without which the conversion of organic forms of 
nitrogen is difficult or impossible. It facilitates the holding 
and movement of the soil water, modifies the temperature and 
by the process of its decay helps make soluble the mineral 
matters of the soil. Unless cover crops are successfully grown 
on tobacco lands in this state the use of stable manure as an 
amendment as well as a fertilizer is necessary to get the best 
results. . 

Comparison of the Effects of Various Forms of Potash on 
the Quality of Tobacco. The plots used for this test received 
yearly 105 pounds of nitrogen in form of cotton seed meal and 
150 pounds of phosphoric acid either in the cotton hull ashes 
(used on two plots as a form of potash) or in a degelatinized 
bone. All likewise had yearly 340 pounds per acre of potash 
in the different forms tested. 

Results. The highest yields of leaf were on plots dressed 
with sulphate of potash or double sulphate of potash. There 
was no great difference in the percentage of wrappers in the 
several crops. 

The wrappers raised on forms of carbonate of potash held 
fire longer than the others. The relative rank in quality 
in the series of twenty-nine plots was as follows : 

First, double carbonate of potash and magnesia; second 
wood ashes ; tenth, carbonate of potash ; thirteenth, double 
sulphate of potash and magnesia ; seventeenth, cotton hull 
ashes ; twenty-first, double sulphate of potash and magnesia 
with added lime ; twenty- third, high grade sulphate of potash 
with added lime; twenty-seventh, high grade sulphate of 

These experiments in the application of fertilizers to tobacco 
were carried out for five years with all the care and skill at 

PoQUONOCK Fertilizer Experiments. 27 

our command. Certain questions regarding the effects of a 
number of fertilizer materials, which have been vainly discus- 
sed for a long time, were answered by these experiments as 
satisfactorily as is in the nature of things possible. 

The opinions of growers regarding tobacco fertilizers arc 
widely divergent and the prejudices of both growers and deal- 
ers are sometimes strong. Thus certain growers declare that 
they would not use stable manure on tobacco if it cost them 
nothing to use it; others would use nothing else if they could 
buy enough manure. 

In 1897 the only tobacco which remained green through the 
growing season and ripened normally, while all of the other 
tobacco in the field turned yellow and was certainly injured by 
the excessive rainfall which leached the land, was that grown 
on the plot which annually for four years had been dressed 
with 10 to 12 cords of stable manure per acre. 

On the other hand, in time of drought we have seen the 
tobacco on manured land holding its own while on unmanured 
land it obviously suffered for lack of moisture. 

Certain dealers refuse to buy crops from land on which lin- 
seed meal was used. The results of our four years tests show 
no ground for this objection. 

Some growers believe that castor pomace is greatly super- 
ior to cotton seed meal as a fertilizer ; others condemn pomace. 
Yet careful comparison for five years fails to show any great 
difference in their effects. The summary given on previous 
pages will show other illustrations of the fact, that on this 
soil, typical of much of our tobacco land, careful experiments 
managed by a skillful and successful grower and with all fac- 
ilties for accurate work, do not justify many of the opinions 
of growers and dealers regarding the effects of different forms 
of plant food on the quality of wrapper tobacco. 

One fact, emphasized by our experience, is that there is 
no "best" tobacco fertilizer or "best" formula for all seasons 
even on the same soil. A formula or a form of plant food 
which in one season gives to the leaf a somewhat better 
quality than any other, may, perhaps the next year and on the 

28 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

same soil, prove inferior to others for reasons which can only 
be surmised. Nevertheless by comparing the efifects of these 
fertilizers for a term of years, it appears that certain of them 
are on the w^hole and generally speaking more likely to impart 
a perfectly satisfactory quality to the leaf than certain others. 

It is doubtless true of tobacco as of other crops that the 
liberal but not greatly excessive supply of readily available 
plant food yearly required to ensure a paying crop, may be 
given in a variety of forms with equally good results on the 
average of one season with another, and that indeed occasioral 
changes in the form of nitrogen and potash supplied may be a 
distinct advantage; avoiding always any considerable quantity 
of those things, chlorine and sulphuric or other free acids, 
which experience has shown may damage the leaf. 

There is no doubt that in the past many tobacco fields have 
been overstocked with potash. This was done because it was 
felt that any deficiency in burning quality of the leaf must be 
ascribed to a deficiency of potash. This, as we have seen, is 
not the fact. Certain growers who had dressed their land 
very heavily in the past years have omitted all potash from 
their formulas for three years in succession and have raised 
excellent crops, thus utilizing the abundant supply already in 
the soil. 

Recent observations indicate also that, although relatively 
little phosphoric acid is removed in the crop, the yield has been 
increased and quality maintained or improved by the use of 
200 or 300 pounds of acid phosphate or "precipitated bone" 
per acre. The following tests on this point made by the Sta- 
tion in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
have not previously been published. 

In a large tobacco field, on land apparently uniform and 
long used for tobacco, six plots of one-third acre each were 
laid off. Four of them, 1, 2, 3 and 4 were dressed with the 
following formula per acre; 12 tons stable manure, 1500 lbs. 
cotton seed meal, 800 lbs. lime, and 400 lbs. bone meal contain- 
ing about 260 lbs. nitrogen, 210 lbs. phosphoric acid and 170 
lbs. potash. Plots 5 and 6 had no manure but equal amounts 
of these tliree elements in form of commercial fertilizers. 

PoQUONocK Fertilizer Experiments. 29 

In addition each plot except 4 received 100 lbs. of phosphor- 
ic acid per acre in the following forms ; plot 1 , acid phosphate, 
plots 2 and 6 double superphosphate, plots 3 and 5 precipitated 
bone. The season was a favorable one, the Cuban tobacco 

Plots 4, 5 and 6 gave about the same yield of fermented mer- 
chantable wrappers. 

Plot 3, gave 25 lbs. more, plot 2, 55 lbs. more and plot 1, 88 
lbs. more than 4, 5 or 6. The leaf after bulk fermentation was 
judged by an expert. The burn and quality of all the samples 
was excellent. But that from plot 3 with precipitated bone 
was best of all; that from plot 5, precipated bone without 
manure, ranked next. The tobacco from plots 1 and 2, acid 
phosphate and double superphosphate, ranked next ; that from 
plot 4, no extra phosphate, was poorest of all and from plot 6 
not much better. Only two pickings were made and the four 
top leaves were left on the stalks. 

The acre yields of fermented, merchantable wrappers were 
as follows : 

Plot 1 . . . .888 lbs. Plot 4 . . . .801 lbs. 

" 2 .... 855 " " 5 .... 804 " 

" 3 .... 825 " " 6 .... 798 " 

Another test was made with Broad Leaf tobacco grown in the 
open. The whole field received 8 cords of manure and 1000 
lbs. of cotton seed meal per acre the two containing about 288 
lbs. of nitrogen, 176 lbs. of phosphoric acid and 227 lbs. of 
potash. The phosphate additions to the fertilizer per acre 
and the yield of cured leaf were as follows. 

Plot. Lbs 

1 no added phosphate 1732 

2 100 lbs. phosphoric acid in acid phosphate 1696 

3 100 " " " " basic phosphate, "Thomas slag" 1840 

4 100 " " 1 1 . < double superphosphate 1876 

5 100 " " " " precipitated bone 2140 

Five pound samples were fermented in the case and judged 
by a dealer in leaf tobacco. 

30 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

Plots 1 and 2 had the smallest and not very different yields. 
Basic phosphate and double superphosphate gave considerably 
larger and nearly equal yields. Precipitated bone gave by far 
the largest yield. 

All the tobacco had a very good burning quality, that grown 
without added phosphate having a little freer bum than the 

The leaf grown with double superphosphate and precipita- 
ted bone had better size, grain and general quality than that 
grown with acid phosphate or basic phosphate. 

While these tests do not prove that in general large additions 
of phosphates will pay, they indicate that yield may be increas- 
ed without impairing quality by the use of larger amounts of 
phosphoric acid in the form of precipitated bone or double 

In general, growers do not use enough lime on their land. 
There is little danger of making a flaky ash by the use of 
at last 500 pounds of lime per acre each year. 

Despite the fact that some fields have been planted to tobac- 
co for 40 years in succession and still yield excellent crops, 
I do not believe that in general tobacco fields will yield as they 
should without occasionally resting them by growing some 
other crop. Fertilization on the thin, light soils suitable for 
the crop must be heavy, large residues from fertilizer chem- 
icals are left in the soil and it is easy to believe that in time 
these accumulations check the growth of the crop*. Another 
crop and the weathering of the soil for a year may do much 
to remedy the evil. 

The Growing of Wrapper Leaf Tobacco under Shade. 

The success which attended the shade-growing of tobacco 
in Florida for a term of years suggested the inquiry whether 
such a practice was feasible in Connecticut and induced die 
Station in 1900, in cooperation with the Division of Soils of the 

* For observations on thi^^ subject at the Massachusetts Station, 
see 85. 

Tobacco Growing Under Shade. 


U. S. Department of Agriculture, to test this matter. A shade 
was built, as shown in the picture, covering about one-third 
of an acre. One-half w^as set with Connecticut Havana and 
one-half with Florida-grown Sumatra tobacco. The details 
of the tests which were continued for three years are described 
in Kept. 1900 p. 322 and Kept. 1901 p. 295 and need not be 
repeated here having been largely superseded by later improve- 
ments. The tobacco was fermented by us in bulk as described 

Fig. 3. The first Tobacco Shade in Connecticut. 

on page 36. This test was epoch-making for it demonstrated 
that tobacco equal, at least, in wrapping quality to any raised 
either in this country or abroad could be raised in Connecticut. 
The crop of 1901, amounting to 957 pounds, was sold by L. 
B. Haas & Co., at private sale for $1526.35, an average of $1.59 
per pound all through. One hundred and seventy-nine pounds 
of it sold for $2.50 per pound and the lowest price per pound 

32 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

was 47 cents. Twenty-one and one half pounds of trash 
leaves brought no price. The opinions of expert tobacco 
dealers and manufacturers on the quality of the leaf will be 
found in Kept. 1900, p. 327. 

It is quite certain that some of this leaf, being a novelty and 
having characters not seen before in Connecticut leaf brought 
a price higher than its real merits warranted. 

The Station report of the experiment cautioned growers a- 
gainst anything more than experimental shade growing until 
methods of growing and handling were better understood. We 
reported "It is not likely that the growing of the Sumatra type 
of leaf in this state can be made a complete success without 
some years of experience and intelligent experiment. A fic- 
titious 'booming' of the business at the outset will certainly 
be followed by a correspondingly irrational depression later". 

This prophecy was immediately fulfilled and inexperienced 
persons plunged into shade growing on a large scale. The 
announcement was made in spite of our warnings that success 
was assured and a new industry established. Several hundred 
thousand dollars were sunk in the business and it was aban- 
doned for a time by all except Mr. M. L. Floyd, who was asso- 
ciated with us in the first year's experiment and who has raised 
tobacco under shade every year since. Having learned the 
whole business by study and experiment, he has made a com- 
mercial success of it and now has some 600 acres under shade. 
In 1902, two hundred acres were grown under shade under 
Mr. Floyd's management ; in the following years somewhat 
less: 1909, 200 acres; 1910, 250 acres; 1911, 575 acres; 1912, 
607 acres. 
It soon appeared that the Sumatra seed used was a mixture of 
strains of differing size and shape of leaf as well as of quality 
and that one reason for the failure of the previous business 
ventures in shade growing was tlie lack of uniformit}' in size, 
shape and quality of leaf. 

In 1902, seed of the Cuban tobacco was imported by A\'illiam 
Hazelwood of New York and beginning in 1903, it was bred 
and selected for a number of years by the U. S. Dc]\-inniont 

Tobacco Cueing. 33 

of Agriculture in this state and now is used for growing under 
shade to the entire exclusion of Sumatra. Size, quality and 
flavor are all superior in the Cuban leaf as bred in this state.* 
In 1911 about 1800 acres of tobacco were grown in this 
state under shade, some of it with indifferent success. As 
long as the trade calls for this kind of leaf, there is no doubt 
that it can be profitably grown in Connecticut if the necessary 
capital and skill are available. An instructive report on the 
effect of shade on soil moisture, air temperature and rate of 
growth is given by J. B. Stewart, (17). 

Tobacco Curing. 

Special attention is called to Farmers' Bulletin No. 523 of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture, by Dr. W. W. Garner 
of the Bureau of Plant Industry, on Tobacco Curing and to 
Bulletin No. 143 of the Bureau of Plant Industry, by the same 
author, on Principles and Practical Methods of Curing Tobac- 
co (29). These bulletins set forth clearly the nature of the 
changes in the leaf during curing and fermentation and de- 
scribe the proper handling of tobacco in these processes. 

Experiments in Curing Tobacco by the use 
OF Artificial Heat. 

The frequent damage and occasional disaster resulting from 
pole-bum need no description. The damage is caused by the 
growth on the leaf of bacteria which can only develop when 
the leaf is very damp, sometimes showing minute drops of 
water on it. 

Moisture sufficient to keep the leaf in good case and to 
advance the cure is not sufficient to start pole-burn. But when 
the atmosphere continues very damp, giving no chance to "air 
out" or "dry out" the barn by opening it, the trouble is likely 
to appear. Various means of drying the leaf have been tried. 
The Connecticut Tobacco Corporation regularly builds small 

* Some account of the selection work is given in 89. 

34 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

charcoal fires on the ground under alternate bents on both 
sides of the barn as soon as it is filled with the picked leaves. 
These fires are kept up until the leaves are very thoroughly 
wilted, the barn being closed throughout the time. Then it is 
opened wide and fires are not again used except in extremely 
unfavorable weather. Many growers in emergencies kindle 
fires under the hanging leaf, either of charcoal or wood. It 
is often done without due preparation or the skill which ex- 
perience gives and with very various and often unsatisfactory 

The Station has made several attempts to supplement the 
natural curing by using artificial heat. The methods tested 
are discussed in Kept. 1897 p. 223, 1898 p. 297 and 1899 p. 286, 
but as none proved satisfactory, no further notice is needed 

In using artificial heat, it should be remembered that the air 
inside a barn is usually very much cooler by day and warmer 
by night than that outside. It should be much easier to start an 
upward current by bottom heat in the night than in the day 
time. Thus in an observation at 4 P. M., the air outside was 
82°F and in the middle of the barn 74°. At noon the next 
day, outside 80°, inside 70° ; next day outside 78° inside 65°. 
The corresponding night temperatures were, 10 P. M. outside 
69°-67°, inside 72°-73°. The next night 1-5.30 A. M., outside 
51°, inside 66°-55° and the next night 2 A. M. outside 38°, 
inside 55°. 

Since these experiments were made, the whole matter of ar- 
tificial heat has been studied by Dr. W. W. Garner of tlie U. S. 
Department of Agriculture chiefly in cooperation with Mr. 
Wm. Pinney of Sufheld. 

In the Rept. 1891 p. 187 is an account of the curing of 
wrapper leaf by the Snow Modern Bam System which proved 
to be inapplicable. 

On the Fermentation of Tobacco. 

In an interesting paper on the nature of the Fermentation of 
Tobacco (7 ), Dr. Oscar Loew advances the explanation of 

Fermentation of Tobacco. 35 

the fermentation of tobacco leaf which is now generally ac- 

His observations indicate that fermenting tobacco containing 
from 18 to 25 per cent, of moisture is germicidal in its action 
and few if any bacteria are found on freshly fermented leaves. 
Contrary therefore to previously accepted views of the agency 
of the bacteria in the process, he attributes fermentation to 
the action of the soluble ferments or enzymes formed in the 
growing plant and perhaps also while wilting after harvest 
The enzymes are not living organisms like microbes, but chem- 
ical bodies which under proper conditions cause extensive 
chemical changes. A familiar example is the diastase of 
barley which will convert many hundred times its weight of 
starch into sugar. 

In tobacco fermentation the main changes are caused by 
two oxidizing enzymes, by the action of which the oxygen of 
the air is made to unite with various compounds in the leaf. To 
this action chiefly is due the color and aroma of fermented 

By the method of fermentation or "sweating" formerly imi- 
versal in this state, 300 lbs. or more of the sorted leaf tied in 
*'hands" of 13 to 18 leaves is tightly and smoothly packed into 
a case or box which is fairly tight on the sides but with one- 
half inch spaces between the end boards. The leaf is packed 
with the tops towards the center and butts at the ends of the 
case. The cases are piled in an unheated storehouse as they 
are packed, turned once or twice, and after lying over one 
summer are sampled and ready for sale to manufacturers. 
Sorting and packing is begun in January, or as soon as the 
cured leaf can be taken from the bam, and finished in three 
or four months. 

In 1899 four cases were packed in February and almost 
daily readings of the temperature in the center of each case 
were made by a telephone thermometer. The figures are given 
in Rept. 1899 p. 291. One case lay for nine weeks before the 
temperature of the tobacco rose even to temperate heat, 70°F. 

36 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

Another full month passed before it rose to 80°. In no one of 
the four cases did the temperature go above 83°. 

It is certain that tobacco often damages (mold, "canker") 
in the cases between the time of packing and the first of May. 
Indeed we believe the greatest danger to cased tobacco from 
mold and mustiness is when it lies cold, damp and unferment- 
ed, waiting for the turning of the seasons to warm it and start 
the fermentation. 

Fermentation is slow, perhaps slower than desirable because 
of the tight packing which nearly excludes air. Fermentation 
being in part a process of oxidation, requires air and the leaf 
can be so tightly packed as almost to prevent ferm.entation. 

"Forced Sweating" has been practiced in past years in 
order to get tobacco into market quickly or to "finish" tobacco 
which has not fermented enough. By this method the tobacco, 
packed in cases, is left for about six weeks in a room kept at 
100° to 130° with moist air. As a method of handling a 
large quantity of normally cured leaf it is not worth consider- 
ing. It is rather an emergency method for treating sick tobac- 
co, a "get cured quick" proposition. 

In Sumatra, Cuba, Germany, as well as in Florida, a third 
method of fermenting wrapper leaf is almost universal which 
is perhaps best known as fermenting in "bulk". In principal 
jt consists in carefully laying the leaf loose or tied in hands 
.in rectangular piles which contain one or more tons of leaf, 
and covering with blankets to check cooling and control but 
not prevent evaporation. (A v/ater-proof cover will damage 
the leaf on the top.) 

The sweat room should be maintained at a tem- 
perature of 80° - 90° F, and the humidity should be high 
enough to keep the leaf soft at all times. Under these condi- 
tions the "bulk" immediately heats and fermentation proceeds 
rapidly. As soon as the thermometer inside the bulk shows 
a temperature of 110°-130° the bulk is pulled down, the leaf 
lightly shaken out and immediately bulked again putting that 
leaf which was on the outside of the former bulk on the in- 

Fermentation of Tobacco. 


side of the new one. In the new bulk the rise of temperature 
is slower. This operation of rebulking is continued until the 
leaf is finished. 

The following record from one of our experiments shows 
the temperatures which may prevail within a bulk from the 
day it is laid down. 


Temperatures of Bulked 


When built . 73° 

Dec. 23 . . . 86° 

Jan. 3 . 

. 94° 

Dec. 19 . . . 85° 

" 24. . . 92° 

" 5 . 

. 99° 

" 20 . . . 99° 

" 25 . . . 97° 

" 7 . 

. 104° 

'• 21 . . . 113° 

" 26 . . . 104° 

" 9 

. 108° 

" 22 . . . 121° 

•• 28 . . . 112° 

" 11 . 

. 107° 

Shaken out and 

" 31 . . . 115° 

" 23 . 

. 100° 

bulked again. 

Jan. 1 . . . 114° 

Shaken out and 

bulked again. 

The above tests were on Connecticut Havana and represent 
work done by the Station in cooperation with the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in 1898. It was, we believe, the first crop 
of Connecticut tobacco fermented by the bulk method within 
the state. 

The results were perfectly satisfactory although the process 
was carried out with no expert assistance. (56 and 57). 

In 1899 (Rept. 1899 p. 291) the experiment was repeated 
on a larger scale with the assistance of Mr. M. L. Floyd, then 
in the employ of the Division of Soils of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture and now general manager of the Connecticut 
Tobacco Corporation. In the report cited the method is given 
in detail. The results also were perfectly satisfactory and 
their publication called general attention to the method. It 
is now universally used for fermenting shade-grown tobacco 
and to some extent for Connecticut Havana while, as far as 
we can learn, it has not been wholly successful with Broadleaf. 
It is quite likely that the method followed with shade-grown 
leaf will need some modification to get the best results with 
the other varieties. 

38 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

Tobacco Breeding. 

As before stated one cause contributing to the temporary 
failure of the shade growing business was the uneven quality 
of the tobacco grown from Sumatra seed. Inspection of the 
growing crop showed a great variety of plants differing in size 
number and shape of leaves, habit of growth etc. and these 
yielded a crop with no uniformity of quality. This observa- 
tion on the Sumatra variety has served to call attention to 
corresponding differences in the character of our Havana and 
Broadleaf crops. Prominent growers often have their own fav- 
orite type of tobacco, a little different from their neighbors. 
Some of these types bear the name of their originator or a 
prominent grower and some are nameless. Some are very uni- 
form in type while others show many different styles of plants 
in the same field. But however uniform a single grower's crop 
may be, the differences between the particular style of his leaf 
and that of his neighbor and of other growers in the valley 
make it difficult if not impossible for buyers to make a "pack- 
ing" of any considerable size which will be quite uniform, for 
usually the crops from a considerable number of growers must 
be put together to make a "packing". This directly concerns 
the growers, for the price must be affected somewhat by differ- 
ences of style between the various crops even if other points 
in quality are the same. 

These facts have led to work in improving the quality and 
uniformity of tobacco in two ways : first, by careful seed se- 
lection and second, by producing hybrids which will combine 
the good characters of two different types. The U. S. 
Department of Agriculture and this Station have engaged in 
this work cooperatively. 

The methods are so simple that every grower may get and 
keep pure seed which yields plants that are fairly uniform in 
all respects. This method has been fully described. (69 p. 

Tobacco is self-fertile : that is, the pollen from any flower 
will fertilize its own ovaries as well as pollen from any other 

Tobacco Breeding. 


By covering the flower buds of a selected plant with a paper 
bag to keep out insects which may bring foreign pollen and by 
keeping them covered until all flower heads have faded, tfiere 
will be a good yield of seed which will produce plants much 
more nearly like the individual parent than plants which grow 
from mixed seed of a number of plants and probably more like 
the parent than if the flower head had not been protected 
from pollination from without. A bagged plant is shown in 
figure 4. 

Fig. 4. Tobacco Plant selected and bagged for Seed Production. 

Seed then should in any case be gathered only from such 
carefully examined and selected plants as appear to be of the 
exact kind which the grower wishes to raise. Protecting the 

40 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

flowers from the pollen of other plants will secure still greater 
uniformity. If the progeny from this selected seed is perfectly 
satisfactory, the grower may bag enough plants and save 
enough seed from them to last him for a dozen years, for to- 
bacco seed loses little of its vitality in that time. 

If the first progeny from selected seed however, is not as 
uniform as is desirable, the grower should select again the 
most desirable type for his next crop and wait another year 
before getting his store of tobacco seed. 

Very much greater uniformity of crop can be brought about 
by this means, which is quite within the power of any tobacco 

The improvement of tobacco by hybridizing, however, is a 
matter for expert work. No hybrid has of recent years been 
produced which has been generally accepted as valuable. The 
Halladay hybrid, saved by Mr. Edmund Halladay from some 
rejected cross-bred plants, has given some crops of great merit, 
but does not yet seem to be fully fixed in type and uniform in 

The studies of Prof. East of Harvard University and of Mr. 
Hayes of this Station are developing the laws of inheritance 
of physical characters in tobacco and, to some extent, of the 
mysterious and complex thing called"quality". Such care- 
ful study is necessary, for little is to be expected from crosses 
made in ignorance of the underlying principles and not fol- 
lowed out until the hybrid has been perfectly fixed in all its 
essential qualities. 

The complex nature of the problems involved makes it im- 
possible to reach anything like a final solution without long 
continued work; however, certain principles have been estab- 
lished. Our results show that the first generation of tobacco 
crosses is as uniform as the parents and of intermediate value. 
The second hybrid generation grown from self-fertilized first 
generation plants, however, shows a wide ranage of variation. 
Often new forms come into being due to a recombination of 
parental characters. Certain inbred second generation plants 
breed true the third season; others breed true for some char- 

Insects Which Injure Tobacco. 41 

acters and others are as variable as the second generation itself. 
The production of fixed forms which contain desirable plant 
characters is not, however, a simple problem because of the 
large number of inherited factors in which plants of different 
races differ and because a superficial resemblance does not 
necessarily mean a germinal or heritable resemblance. It is 
necessary to grow large second generations of crosses and to 
save seed from those plants which most nearly conform to the 
desired type. The important matter in practice is to grow a 
sufficiently large number of third generations to run a fair 
chance of testing out all the combinations of factors possible 
to the parental varieties. Selection should then be continued 
in later generations until the desired form has been obtained. 

Since quality of cured leaf depends on many factors, exter- 
nal as well as internal, it is probably unreasonable to expect 
any single character to be closely correlated with quality. The 
results of our experiments have shown that quality is depend- 
ent on both hereditary and environmental conditions and that 
high quality and uniformity of leaf cannot be expected if a type 
is in a complex hybrid condition. 

Recently a sport or mutation of tobacco was found by Mr. 
J. B. Stewart of the Windsor Tobacco Growers' Corporation, 
which produces about 70 leaves before flowering instead of the 
16 to 25 leaves which are normal in the Hazelwood Cuban. 
This mutation has bred true in the next generation and the 
quality of the cured and fermented leaves appears to be excel- 
lent if not superior. It is fully described by Hayes and Bein- 
hart in (90) and the progeny will be closely studied. 

Insects Which Injure Tobacco. 

Tdbacco or Horn Worms. These worms, the caterpillars 
of sphinx or hawk moths, are more destructive than any other 
insects attacking tobacco in this state, excepting cut worms. 
The eggs are laid singly on the under side of the leaves by the 
adults which fly only at dusk. The egg hatches, seldom before 


Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

July, into a worm or caterpillar which eats tobacco leaves vo- 
raciously until harvest time. The fully grown caterpillar goes 
into the ground and assumes its pupal or chrysalid form a few 
inches below the surface to emerge as a moth the next spring. 
An important natural enemy is a small four-winged fly 
which lays eggs in the worm. Its larvae develop there and 
fasten their cocoons on the back of the caterpillar as shown in 
the figure. A worm thus attacked dies before transforming. 

Fig. 5. Tobacco or Horn Worm. 

Remedy. The only control practiced in Connecticut is hand 
picking. Carman in Kentucky has shown that 1 pound of 
Paris green in 160 gallons of water does not injure the leaf 
and spraying is practiced somewhat in Kentucky and also in 
Florida where lead arsenate is used which cannot kill the 
leaves and adheres to them better than Paris green. 

Flea Beetles damage the sand leaves chiefly, soon after set- 
ting and so check the early growth. They do most of th^ir 
work on the under side of the leaf by eating the tissue. Some- 
times they continue their attack on the older and larger lea^■es. 
Our experiments in two successive years proved that tobacco 
plants at setting time could be dipped root and top in a mixture 

Insects Which Injure Tobacco. 


of 1 pound of lead arsenate (paste) in 10 gallons of water and 
were thereby perfectly protected from flea beetles. The figure 
shows this insect, greatly enlarged. 

Fig. 6. 

The cucumber flea beetle Epitrix cucunieris. (After Chittenden, 
Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture.) 

Grasshoppers, Tree Crickets, Carolina Locusts, Etc. 

Sometimes a crop, particularly on the outside rows, especially 
when near grass, weeds or brush, is very seriously damaged by 
these insects. There is no known preventive unless spraying 
with lead arsenate can be practiced. 

The spined tobacco bug Euchistus variolarins . (After Howard, 
Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture.) 

The Spined Tobacco Bug. "Stink Bug". This bug some- 
times punctures the leaf stem and sucks out the plant juices. 


Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

The leaf usually wilts but may recover in a few days if the 
conditions are favorable. No remedy can be used but the 
damage from this cause is usually small. The insect is shown 
much enlarged in the figure. The straight lines show the 
actual size. 

Plant Lice. Green lice are occasionally found on the under- 
side of the leaves but do little damage. A spray of one pound 
of laundry soap dissolved in 8 gallons of water should kill the 
lice which it hits. 

White Fly. This fly is not at present frequently found on 
tobacco in the field. The spray of soap suds frequently applied 
is the remedy. 

Moth of the^black cutworm 

The variegated cutworm. 
Natural size. 

Fig. 8. Tobacco Cutworms. 

Cut Worms. These insects do vastly more damage to to- 
bacco than all others put together making it necessary to re- 
set the field or to set missing plants many times. The latter 
plan tends to make the crop uneven in maturity and quality 
at harvest. 

Insects Which Injure Tobacco. 45 

Cut worms are caterpillars of a number of species of owlet 
moths. Most species have but one brood a year. The eggs 
are laid on grasses late in summer. The worms as they hatch 
feed on grass roots and other plants, going deeper into the soil 
as colder weather comes. In the spring they come out and 
feed on plants of many kinds. Later they take the chrysalid 
form in the ground and emerge as moths. The worms feed 
at night and spend the day in the ground or under clods or 
rubbish. They and the moth are shown in the figure, the 
moth much enlarged. 

Remedies. Late fall plowing uncovers many worms 
which are eaten by birds, and also kills the plant growth which 
is^ their early spring food. Undoubtedly rye and other cover 
crops favor their presence in the field. The best poison bait 
for them is one pound of Paris green to one hundred pounds 
of bran, a pint or more of molasses and enough water to moist- 
en the whole which is thoroughly mixed. The mash is strewn 
over the field a few days before setting, or placed on the rows 
where the plants are to be set. This will kill most of the 
worms which are ready to attack the crop. 

Some growers have found it worth while to put a pinch of 
this mash near each plant when set and claim that it gives 
perfect protection. This, however, involves a great deal of 

Wireworms. These are the worms of the click beetles and 
unlike cutworms can work their way into hard vege- 
table matter. Occasionally but not often, they do serious 
damage to tobacco attacking both the roots and the base of 
the stem. 

The worm lives for at least three years underground, trans- 
forming there after midsummer of the third season in earthen 
cells. The adult beetle emerges the following spring. 

Remedy. The only suggested remedy is stirring the soil 
in late summer and fall which' breaks the cells and kills many 
of the adults. 

46 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

Tobacco Bud Worm. This insect which is not at all com- 
mon in this state is a greenish caterpillar which eats the leaves. 
The moth, into which it emerges, is shown in the figure. 

A more detailed account of the insects attacking tobacco 
in Connecticut was published in the Report of this Station. 

Tobacco Bud Worm. 

5nails. Snails sometimes do considerable damage to to- 
bacco in the seed bed, chiefly where the soil is damp, by feed- 
ing on the leaves and stalks. 

Spraying the plants with a weak lead arsenate mixture 
poisons them. Thorough ventilation of the bed to dry the 
surface will do much to rid it of the pest. 

Fungous and Other Diseases of Tobacco. 
a. Diseases of Tobacco in the Seed Bed. 

Dampeningoff and Seedling Stem Rot. Tliere are at least 
three different fungi v,hich cause dampening off trouble in 
the seed bed. When these attack older plants the tissues of 
which are harder, they may cause cankers on the lower part 
of the stem. Sucji plants should never be used for setting as 
they are likely to break off at the cankered places and even 
if they survive are not as thrifty as normal plants. 

These troubles are induced or aggravated by over-crowding 
and excessive moisture and can be largely prevented by proper 
watering and ventilation, matters to be learned by experience. 

Tobacco Diseases. 


If they persist in a bed, sterilizing or changing the soil or the 
location of beds may prove helpful. Low, moist land and 
abundance of vegetable matter, especially stable manure, ag- 
gravate these troubles. 

They are apt to develope in cold, moist, or "muggy" weather 
when it is difficult to rightly air the beds. 

The figures show the work of the fungus and the effect 
of soil sterilization ; 1 is soil sterilized, 2 soil untreated. 

Fig. 9. Effect of treatment in preventing Stem Rot fungus. 

Root Rot. This disease, first found in this state by the 
.Station botanist on violets, did very serious damage in Con- 
necticut seed beds and fields in 1906 and 1907 but has not been 


Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

very prevalent since that time. It attacks the roots of the plant 
either very early in the bed or later in the field. The affected 
seedlings show little vigor, form rosettes of leaves close to 
the ground instead of standing upright and may either wilt 
and die or finally outgrow the disease by forming new second- 

Showing how the fungus injures base of stems. 
Fig. 10. Dampening off Fungus of young Tobacco Plants. 

ary roots, but seldom if ever make perfectly normal plants. 
The tap root of a diseased plant is often destroyed and black 
spots appear on the smaller lateral roots. A full discussion 
of this disease is given in (72) with bibliography p. 366. See 
also (74) and (83). 

Tobacco Diseases. 


Remedies. Plants which are attacked cannot profitably 
be treated in any way. The trouble seems to do most damage 
in seed beds though the plants may sometimes be first attacked 
after setting in the field. Once started in a bed, root rot is like- 
ly to increase from year to year making it necessary to abandon 
the bed or to thoroughly disinfect it. 



Fig. 11. Effect of rot on roots of mature field plants. 

When the bed is conveniently situated and permanentl}'- 
built, the latter plan is often the best. The two effective 
sterilizers are steam and formaldehyde. The latter method, 
fully discussed in (74) and (83), is in brief this: It is best 
applied in the fall but may be done early in the spring, 
thoroughly airing the beds afterwards. A mixture of 1 volume 


Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

of formaldehyde or formalin 37-40per cent. or U. S. P. strength 
in 100 volumnes of water is gradually sprinkled over the bed 
at the rate of a gallon per square foot, and slowly enough 
not to puddle the surface and leave liquid standing on it. 


> / 


Fig. 12. Comparative size of healthy and diseased roots of seedlings. 

Cover the bed immediately for a day or two with boards or 
canvas to keep in the fumes and then air thoroughly and stir 
the soil lightly. 

Steaming is more efifective where the apparatus can be 
conveniently obtained. This method is fully described in 
(66.) The pan, shown in the figure, is made of 18-gauge 
galvanized iron with a handle bar at each end, reinforced with 

Tobacco Diseases. 


Fig. 13. Steam Sterilizer on Tobacco Bed. 

strap iron and having a nipple for a steam hose connection 
with a steam boiler, six to eight horse power, which will 
maintain 70-80 pounds of steam. A tight wooden box of 
similar size is equally effective. 

The pan is inverted over one end of the bed which has been 
raked smooth, ready for seeding. Its edges are pressed down 
and steam is turned on and kept at a boiler pressure of 70 
pounds for at least one-half hour. The pan is then moved to the 
next section of the bed and the steamed part covered with 

52 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

burlap to hold the heat longer. Where a long bed is to be 
treated, two pans can be used economically, letting the one 
stand after steaming while the other is in operation. 

This treatment, and in less degree the formalin treatment, 
also kills weeds and makes subsequent weeding almost un- 
necessary. In one test 180 square yards of bed cost the labor 
of two men two days, $6.00. To weed 90 square yards of 
unsterilized bed during the season cost $12.00 in labor. It 
is to be remembered that a steam hose is dangerous and dur- 
ing steaming no one should stand close to it. 

Sprinkling affected plants with formalin solution is, in 
our experience, futile. 

Root rot may cause a diminished tobacco crop without 
showing such virulence as to kill any plants. A cold wet 
season is likely to aggravate the trouble. It seems to bear 
some relation to improper fertilization especially to the exces- 
sive use of alkaline potash manures. 

Sumatra Disease, Bacterial. In 1907 this trouble appeared 
on Sumatra plants and did severe injury. It is apparently 
bacterial, attacking the base of the stem and the root imme- 
diately below it and is entirely distinct from the root rot above 
described. (73). 

It has not yet been seen on our Havana or Broadleaf. 

b. Diseases of Tobacco in the Field. 

Canker. This shows as a girdling of the stem underground 
or a diseased area on the stem abo\e. In tlio latter case 
there is a dark brown sunken area in tb.c l)ark, shari)ly marked 
off from the healthy green bark. The appearance is shown 
in the figure. While other diseases or even insect injuries 
may be the starting point of this disease, the canker itself 
is probably of bacterial origin. Till now it has not been com- 
mon enough to do serious damage. Hea\y manuring seems 
to favor the devlopment of this disease. 

Tobacco Diseases. 


a. Cankered area extending on stem from ground upward. 

b. Stem girdled under ground. 
Fig. 14. Canker Disease of Tobacco. 


Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

"Calico", sometimes called the "mosaic disease". The 
experiments of the Station botanist, Dr. Clinton, so far 
indicate that most of the "calico" on leaves of commercial 
value in the fields traces back to the seed bed or to infection 
of the seedlings at the time of transplanting. To explain 
this more clearly, it should be stated that "calico" is a disease 

Fig. 15. Calico from tobacco on tomato and then back to tobacco. 

that is very easily transmitted by handling a healthy plant 
after handling a "calicoed" plant, especially if any of the juices 
from the "calicoed" plants are on the hands. This juice is 
only effective on the immature or growing leaves. That is, 
one can touch with it a fully grown leaf at the base of a 
tobacco plant and it will not "calico", but the young leaves 

Tobacco Diseases. SS 

above will become "calicoed" though not even touched at 
this time. From this it can be seen that if there are any 
"calicoed" plants in the seed bed the handling of these while 
transplanting is likely to greatly spread the "calico" to other- 
wise healthy plants. This explains why sometimes in the 
field one finds every other plant "calicoed" for quite a distance 
in the row. The man who set these either got the juice from 
a "calicoed" plant on his hands or else got a bunch of plants 
which had come in contact with "calicoed" plants,while the 
man who set the alternate sound plants did not carry the in- 
fection. The figure shows on the left a "calico" leaf from 
which the trouble was transmitted to the tomato leaf in the 
center and from that the tobacco leaf on the right was infected. 

Unfortunately "calico" cannot usually be recognized in the 
plants while in the seed bed. Occasionally before the final 
setting, such plants are found. Whenever they are found 
they and the surrounding plants should be pulled out and the 
other plants should not be touched until the hands have been 
washed thoroughly with soap and water. 

So far, the chief methods of lessening "calico" in the seed 
bed are avoiding the use of tobacco water, as noted above 
and probably steam sterilization. Some growers believe that 
the careless use of fertilizers on the growing seedlings pro- 
duces "calico", but if so, this has not yet been proved by 

Seed beds should never be made on land recently planted 
to tobacco nor should tobacco stems ever be used in the bed. 
The reason is that a single calico plant in a bed which might 
have been caused by stems may infect many others during 
the handling necessary in pulling and setting. On the other 
hand a chance infection from stems in the field is not so likely 
to spread the trouble by contact. 

When beds are apt to produce calico plants and sterilization 
is impossible it is well to make new beds. 

See also conclusions of G. H. Chapman (86), and especial- 
ly of Allard (91). 

56 Connecticut Experiment Stahon Bulletin 180. 

Rust. This shows as reddish brown spots on the leaf, con- 
sidered by some as a symptom of cahco and by others as not 
connected with that trouble. In our observation it occurs on 
calico plants as a result of the weakened condition of the 
plant and is thus indirectly associated. 

String Leaves. "Shoe String" Leaf. Very narrow de- 
formed leaves, sometimes leaving little besides the midrib, are 
frequently associated with calico. 

c. Diseases of Tobacco in the Curing Barn. 

Pole=Burn of Tobacco. A preliminary report on this 
trouble is given in Rept. 1891 p. 168 which suggests that it is 
caused primarily by the growth if a fungus on the leaf which 
by destroying the tissue gives access to bacteria which induce 
decay. See page 33. 

The writer. Dr. Sturgis, recommends horizontal ventilation 
and discusses the process and methods of curing by the 
use of artificial heat. (44-51-52-60 ). 

Frost Fungus. This appears on the leaf-stems in the bam, 
at first in pure white patches looking like hoar frost or velvet. 
The patches spread to the leaf veins, destroy the tissue and 
decay follows. The white patches are the fruiting stage of 
a fungus, Botryosporium pulchrum, Cda. Its spores are 
developed and carried over to the next year in the stalks and 
waste leaves left in the barn. 

Preventive. This mold may be prevented by perfect 
cleanliness in the barn from which all stalks and waste should 
be at once removed. In extreme cases the f^oor should be 
covered with fresh earth or sprinkled with a mixture of slaked 
lime and sulphur, or the barn fumigated. 

d. Diseases of Tobacco in the Case. 

Black Spot or Canker. (11). This appears as dark colored 
patches, often extending through several overlapping "hands" 

Tobacco Diseases. 57 

of leaf, destroying the tissue. It is probably a fungous trouble, 
Sterigmatocysiis niger, but what conditions induce the disease 
is not known nor any preventive. 

Probably too "high case" in packing associated with con- 
tinued low temperature has much to do with its appearance 

Musty Tobacco. Is another disease of packed tobacco 
caused either by fungus or bacterial trouble acquired by hand- 
ling the leaf in an unclean way in the barn or packing house. 

58 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 




This list is probably not complete but I believe includes most 
of the important papers on this subject, which have been 
published by the United States Department of Agriculture and 
the Agricultural Stations, within the last twenty-five years 

For ready reference, the following key to subjects may be 
helpful : 


Analyses of leaf, 26, 41, 42, 49, 53, 84, 87. 

" stalks, 43, 50. 
Artificial heat in curing. 29, 31, 40, 46, 56. 
Breeding and selection, 5, 24, 67, 68, 69, 80, 81, 82, 89. 
Burning quality, tests of, 25. 26, 28. 
Calico of tobacco, 19, 55, 65, 66, 86, 91. 
Cigar types of tobacco, 23, 32. 
Culture, curing, marketing, 1, 2, 21, 23, 37, 46. 
Curing, 7, 29, 31, 36, 40, 56, 61. 
Diseases, bibliography of, 54, 63. 

" various, 65, 66, 68, 71, 73. 

Enzymes in tobacco, 12, 88. 
Fermentation, 7, 8, 13, 18, 56, 57, 61. 

" chemical changes during, 49. 

Fertilizer experiments, 47, 48, 84, 85, 87. 
Fertilizers, effect on composition of leaf, 53. 
Grain of tobacco, 59. 
Industry 4, 35. 

Bibliography of Wrapper Tobacco. 59 

Injury due to malnutrition or over fertilization, 70. 
Insects injuring tobacco, 39, 70, 75. 
Leaf surface of, 62. 
Mosaic disease (see calico). 
Nicotine in tobacco, 28. 
Pole burn, 44, 51, 52, 60. 
Root rot, Thielavia, 30, 33, 72, 74, 83. 
Seed, preparation of, 77. 
" varieties of, 21, 23. 
Seed beds, management, 80. 
Shade growing, 13, 16, 17, 27, 58, 64, 76. 
Soils, 3, 10, 14, 15, 38. 
Stem rot, 45. 

Vetch as a cover crop, 34, 78. 
Wilt disease, 22. 


General Treatises: 

1. Report on the Culture and Curing of Tobacco in the United 

States. J. B. Killebrew. Tenth Census of the 
United States (1880). Vol III, pp. 164. 

2. Tobacco Leaf: Its Culture and Cure, Marketing and Man- 

ufacture. Killebrew & Myrick, pp. 494. iigs. 137. 
Orange Judd Co., 1897. 

Publications OF the United States Department of Agriculture: 
Year Book. 

3. 1894. Tobacco Soils of .Connecticut (and Pennsylvania) 

Milton Whitney, pp. 143-151. 

4. 1899. Growth of the Tobacco Industry. Milton Whitney and 

Marcus L. Floyd, pp. 429-440 pis. XXIX-XXXV. 

5. 1904. The Improvement of Tobacco by Breeding and Selec- 

tion. A. D. Shamel, pp. 435-452, pis. LIX-LXIV. 

6. 1906. New Tobacco Varieties. A. D. Shamel, pp. 387-404, 

pis. XXXIII-XXXVI, figs. 11-14. 


7. 59. Curing and Fermentation of Cigar Leaf Tobacco. 

Oscar Loew, pp. 34. 

60 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

8. 60. Temperature Changes in Fermenting Piles of Cigar- 

Leaf Tobacco. Milton Whitnej' and Thomas H. 
Means, pp. 28, figs. 7. 

9. 63. The Work of the Agricultural Experiment Stations 

on Tobacco. (Abstracted by) J. I. Schulte, pp. 48. 

10. 64. Field Operations, Division of Soils, 1899. Soil Survey 

in the Connecticut Valley. Clarence W. Dorsey 
and J. A. Bonsteel, pp. 124-140, pis. XXI-XXVII. 

11. 65. Physiological Studies of Connecticut Leaf Tobacco. 

Oscar Loew, pp. 57. 

12. 68. Catalase, A New Enzym of General Occurreuce, with 

Special Reference to the Tobacco Plant. Oscar 
Loew, pp. 47. 

Divisiofi of Soils. 

13. Rept. 1900. Tobacco Experiments Conducted by the Divis- 

ion of Soils in Cooperation with the Con- 
necticut Experiment Station. Marcus L. 
Floyd, pp. 462-469. 

14. 1903. Soil Survey of the Connecticut Valley. Elmer 

O. Fippin, pp. 39-61. 

15. Bui. 11. Tobacco Soils of the United States: A Prelim- 

inary Report upon the Soils of the Princi- 
pal Tobacco Districts. Milton Whitney, pp. 
47, pis. XIII. 

16. 20. Growing Sumatra Tobacco under Shade in the 

Connecticut Valley. Milton 'VN'^hitney, pp. 31, 
pis. VII, figs. 2. 

17. 39. Effects of Shading on Soil Conditions. J. B. 

Stewart, pp. 19, pis. IV, figs. 7. 

18. Circ. 5. Bulk Fermentation of Connecticut Tobacco. 

M. L. Floyd, pp. 10. 

Bureau of Plant Industry. 

19. Bui. 18. Observations on the Mosaic Disease of Tobacco. 

A. F. Woods, pp. 24, pis. VI. 

20. 22. Injurious Effects of Premature Pollination. 

(Contains Observations on Tobacco Blos- 
soms.) C. P. Hartley, pp. 39, pis. IV, fig 1. 

21. 25. Miscellaneous Papers. Part IV. Congression- 

al Seed and Plant Distribution Circulars. 
Plan of Distributing Tobacco Seed and Cul- 
tural Directions for the Different Types of 
Tobacco Distributed, pp. 70-82. 

Bibliography of Wrapper Tobacco. 61 

22. 51. Miscellaneous Papers. 1. The Wilt Disease of 

Tobacco and its Control. R. E. B. McKen- 
ney, pp. 5-8, fig 1. 

23. 91. Varieties o£ Tobacco Seed Distributed in 1905- 

'06 with Cultural Directions. A. D. Shame! 
and W. W. Cobey, pp. 38, pis. IX. 

24. 96. Tobacco Breeding. A. D. Shamel and W. W. 

Cobey, pp. 67, pis. X, figs. 14. 

25. 100. Pt. IV. Methods of Testing the Burning Qual- 

ity of Cigar Tobacco. W. W. Garner, pp. 
14, pis. II, figs. 3. 

26. 105. The relation of the Composition of the Leaf to 

the Burning Qualities of Tobacco. W. W. 
Garner, pp. 27. 

2". 138. The Production of Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco 

under shade in the Connecticut Valley. J. B. 
Stewart, pp. 31, pis. V. 

28. 141. Miscellaneous Papers. 1. The Relation of 

Nicotine to the Burning Quality of Tobacco. 
W. W. Gamer, pp. 16. 

29. 143. Principles and Practical Methods of Curing 

Tobacco. W. W. Gamer, pp. 54, figs. 10 

30. 158. The Root-Rot of Tobacco Caused by Thielavia 

basicola. W. W. Gilbert, pp. 55, pis. V. 

31. 241. The Use of Artificial Heat in Curing Cigar- 

Leaf Tobacco. W. W. Garner, pp. 25, figs. 4. 

32. 244. The Export and Manufacturing Tobaccos of 

the United States, with Brief Reference to 
the Cigar Types. E. H. Mathewson, pp. 100, 
maps II, figs. 37. 

33. Circ. 7. The Field Treatment of Tobacco Root-Rot 

L. J. Briggs, pp. 8. 

34. 15. The Fertilizing Value of Hairy Vetch for Con- 

necticut Tobacco Fields. T. R. Robinson, 
pp. 5. 

35. 48. The Present Status of the Tobacco Industry. 

(1910) W. W. Gamer, pp. 13. 

Farmers' Bulletin. 

36. 60. Methods of Curing Tobacco. Milton Whitney. 

pp, 16. 

62 Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

37. 82. The Culture of Tobacco. O. C. Butterweck, 

pp. 24. 

38. 83. Tobacco Soils. Milton Whitney, pp. 23, fig. 1. 

39. 120. The Principal Insects Aflfecting the Tobacco 

Plant. L. O. Howard, pp. 32, figs. 25. 

40. 523. Tobacco Curing. W. W. Garner, pp 24. figs. 4. 
Connecticut State Board of Agriculture. 

41. Rept. 1872. Tobacco. S. W. Johnson, pp. 384-416. 
Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. 

42. Rept. 1884. Analyses of Tobacco Leaf. E. H, Jenkins, 

pp. 96-104. 

43. Tobacco Stalks. E. H. Jenkins, pp. 104-106. 

44. 1891. Preliminary Report on the So-Called "Pole- 

Burn" of Tobacco.. W. C. Sturgis, pp. 168- 
184, figs. 2. 

45. Stem-Rot. W. C. Sturgis, pp. 184-186. 

46. Notes on the Curing of Havana Seed-Lea f 

Tobacco by Artificial Heat (Snow System). 
E. H. Jenkins, pp. 187-195. 

47. 1892. Experiments in Growing Tobacco with Differ- 

ent Fertilizers. E. H. Jenkins, pp. 1-24. 
See also Repts. 1893, pp. 112-144 : 1894, pn. 254- 
. 284: 1895, pp. 128-156: 1896, pp. 285-321: 

1897, pp. 223-256. Resume of Five Years' 

Work, pp. 243-256. 

48. Formulas for Tobacco. E. H. Jenkins, pp. 24-27 

49. Chemical Changes in Tobacco During Fermen- 

tation. E. H. Jenkins, pp. 28-31. 

50. Analyses of Tobacco Stalks When Cut and 

after Curing. E. H. Jenkins, pp. 31-34. 

51. 1893. Tobacco (Discussion of Conditions Influenc- 

ing Pole-Burn). W. C. Sturgis, pp. 82, 83. 

52. Further Notes on the Cause of "Pole-Sweat" 

and "Stem-Rot" of Tobacco. W. C. Sturgis 
pp. 84, 85. 

53. 1896. The Effects of Fertilizers on the Composition 

of Wrapper-Leaf Tobacco. E. H. Jenkins, 
pp. 322-333. 

54. 1897. Bibliography of Certain Publications on Tobac- 

co Diseases. W. C. Sturgis, p. 216. 
See also Rept. 1900, pp. 289, 290. 

Bibliography of Wrapper Tobacco. 63 

55. 1898. Preliminary Notes on Two Diseases of Tobacco 

("Calico" and "Spot"). W. C. Sturgis pp. 

56. Experiments in Curing and Fermenting Tobac- 

co. E. H. Jenkins, pp. 297-301. 

57. The Fermentation of Tobacco in Bulk. E. H. 

Jenkins, pp. 302-306. 
See also Rept. 1901, p. 306. 

58. 1899. On the Effects, on Tobacco, of Shading and 

the Application of Lime. W. C. Sturgis, pp. 

59. On the So-Called "Grain" of Wrapper Tobacco. 

W. C. Sturgis, pp. 262-264, pi. II. 

60. • Further Notes on the Pole-Bum of Tobacco. 

W. C. Sturgis, pp. 265-269. 

61. Experiments in Curing and in Fermenting 

Wrapper-Leaf Tobacco. E. H. Jenkins, pp. 

62. The Area of Leaf Surface on the Topped 

Tobacco Plant. E. H. Jenkins, p. 297. 

63. 1900. Bibliography of Tobacco Diseases. W. C. 

Sturgis, pp. 289,290. 

64. Can Wrapper-Leaf Tobacco of the Sumatra 

Type be raised in Connecticut? E. H. Jen- 
kins, pp. 322-329, pi. VII. 
See also Repts. 1901, pp. 295-312 ; 1902, pp. 446, 

65. 1903. Tobacco Diseases (Very Brief Notes on Frost 

Fungus, Seed-Bed Rot, Pole-Bum, Calico, 
Rust and Spot). G. P. Clinton, pp. 362,363. 

66. 1904. Tobacco Diseases (Very Brief Notes on Canker 

and Must). G. P. Clinton, p. 328. 

67. Experiments in Breeding Tobacco. E. H. 

Jenkins, pp. 449-452, pi. I. 

68. 1905. Fungous Disease of Tobacco. G. P. Clinton, 

pp. 276, 277. 

69. Tobacco Breeding Experiments in Connecticut. 

A. D. Shamel, pp. 331-342, pis. XXVI- 
XXVIII, fig. 10. 

70. 1906. Insect Enemies of the Tobacco Crop in Con- 

necticut. W. E. Britton, pp. 263-279, pis. 
XII-XVI, figs. 8-12. 

64 ■ Connecticut Experiment Station Bulletin 180. 

71. Tobacco Diseases (Brief Notes on Bed-Rot, 

Canker, Damping Off, Root-Rot, Stem-Rot). 
G. P. Clinton, pp. 324-329, pis. XIX-XXI. 

72. Root-Rot of Tobacco. Thielavia basicola. G. 

P. Clinton, pp. 342-368, pis. XXIX-XXXII. 

73. 1907-'08. Sumatra Disease. G. P. Clinton, pp. 360, 361. 

74. Root-Rot of Tobacco. G. P. Clinton, pp. 363- 

368, pi. XXIV. 

75. 1909-'10. Tobacco Bud Worm in Connecticut. W. E. 

Britton, pp. 367, 368, fig. VI. 

76. Bui. 137. Can Wrapper Leaf Tobacco of the Sumatra 

Type Be Raised at a Profit in Connecticut? 
E. H. Jenkins, pp. 20, fig. 1. 

77. 148. The Preparation of Tobacco Seed. A. D. 

Shamel, pp. 4. 

78. 149. A New and Valuable Cover Crop for Tobacco 

Fields. A. D. Shamel, pp. 7. fig. 1. 

79. 150. The Selection of Tobacco Seed Plants. A. D. 

Shamel, pp. 13, pis. VII. 

80. 166. The Management of Tobacco Seed Beds. W. 

M. Hinson and E. H. Jenkins, pp. 11, fig. ] 

81. 171. Correlation and Inheritance in Nicotiana Taba- 

cuni. H. K. Hayes, pp. 45, pis. V. 

82. 176. Tobacco Breeding in Connecticut. H. KL. Hayes, 

E. M. East and E. G. Beinhart, pp. 68, pis. 

83. Bui. of Imm. Inf. 4. Root-Rot of Tobacco. E. H. Jenkins 

and G. P. Clinton, pp. 11, pis. II. 

Massachusetts Hatch Agricultural Experiment Station. 

84. Rept. 1897. Notes on Field Experiments with Tobacco in 

Massachusetts, 1893-1896. C. A. Goessmann. 
pp. 128-136. 

85. 1911. Pt. II. Tobacco Injury Due to Malnutrition or 

Overfertilization. H. D. Haskins, pp. 35, 36 

86. 1912. Pt. II. "Mosaic" and Allied Diseases, with 

Especial Reference to Tobacco and Toma- 
toes. G. H. Chapman, pp. 41-51. 

87. Bui. 47. On Field Experiments with Tobacco in Massa- 

chusetts. C. A. Goessmann, pp.31. 

Bibliography of Wrapper Tobacco. 65- 


«8. Science. New Sen Vol. XI, No. 262, 1900. Inhibiting Action 
of Oxidase upon Diastase. A. F. Woods, pp. 

89. Proceedings American Breeders Association, Vol. VII. 

What Seed Selection and Breeding have done 
for Tobacco in Connecticut. H. K. Hayes, 
pp. 143-152. 

90. Science. New Ser. Vol. XXXIX, No. 992, 1914. Mutation 

in Tobacco. H. K. Haj'es and E. G. Bein- 
hart, pp. 34-35. 

Publications of the United States Department of 

91. Bui. U. S. Dep't Ag. No. 40. The Mosaic Disease of Tobacco. 

H. A. Allard, pp. 33. pis. VII. 
See also Science. New Ser. Vol. XXXVI. 
No. 9383, 1912. Mosaic Disease of Tobacco. 
H. A- Allard, pp. 875-876. 

92. Journal of Heredity, Vol. V, No. 1. Variation in 

Tobacco. H. K. Hayes, pp. 40-46. 

University of